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Chapter 24

Suspensions

Particles may be micronized, flocculated or deflocculated, viscosity and density may be adjusted, but gravity cannot be turned off. Dispersing agents are used to deflocculate particles. They are usually selected by experience. The Tables of R.D. Nelson provide some experience; the literature of the field even more, but is not so accessible. Experimental techniques to investigate suspensions include adsorption from solution, surface-tension titrations, sediment volumes, ultrasonics, and rheology. The latter provides information about the degree and rate of flocculation. Polymers, depending on their structure and concentration, can act as either flocculants or deflocculants.

Key Words: avalanching, bridging flocculation, Casson equation, clay thickeners, crystal habit, deflocculated suspension, dispersing agents, dye adsorption, electroacoustic techniques, flocculated suspension, heteroflocculation, Langmuir adsorption, mosaic flocculation, nucleation, potential determining ions, polymer bridging, powder flow, preferential adsorption, rheology of suspensions, sediment volume, shear thickening, shear thinning, surface-tension titration, thickeners, ultrasonic spectroscopy, viscoelasticity




 



 



 

 


 

 

 




 


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