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Commercial Programs Directed

 
   
  Particle-based displays Patents 20, 22, 24 – 38, 40 – 42, 46 – 52
    Standard printing such as lithography is a particle-based image. Particle-based displays create the same types of pigment images with particles that can be moved by an external electric field. This is generally nonaqueous electrophoresis. These patents describe materials that can be used to create images with oppositely charged, differently colored particles, e.g. both black and white pigments, one positively charged and one negatively charged.
       
  Electrophotography Publications 13, 19; Patents 5 – 7, 11, 16, 19
    Electrophotography is the image-wise discharge of a charged capacitor film and the electrophoretic development of the electrostatic image. The active layers are comprised of polymer-molecule mixtures, matched-polymer interfaces, and dispersed photoconductive pigments. These patents and publications describe useful materials and fabrication techniques.
       
  Specialty inks and toners Publications 19, 31– 32; Patents 8, 12 – 14, 18
    Images can be “fixed” by several methods, usually by heating. These publications describe other possibilities such as precipitation or UV-photoinitiation curing. The optical properties of thin, pigmented toner layers are analyzed. Retroreflecting inks which can be used as “hidden” information are described.
       
  Coating and coatings Publications 14, 17; Patents 9, 16, 17, 21
    Controlled resistivity films were created by independent control of particle shape, conductivity, and particle concentration. Methods for improving coatings were developed.
       
     
       

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